نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

مقدمه: مطالعه عوامل سبب­ساز مشکلات تغذیه­ای شیرخواران با توجه به شیوع بالا و پیامدهای منفی آن از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار است. لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه خلق وخوی شیرخوارانی که به روایت مادرانشان دارا و فاقد مشکلات تغذیه‌ای بودند، انجام گرفت.مواد و روش: در این پژوهش علی- مقایسه‌ای، تعداد 50 نفر زوج مادر- کودک از طریق نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. سن شیرخواران بین 6 تا 12 ماه بود. پس از همتاسازی از نظر سن، جنسیت و ترتیب ‌تولد شیرخوار و نیز سن و تحصیلات والدین، نوزادان بر اساس گزارش مادر در مورد وجود یا عدم وجود مشکلات تغذیه‌ای در دو گروه مستقل جایگزین شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها، پرسشنامه رفتار شیرخوار- تجدید نظر شده، توسط مادر شیرخوار تکمیل شد. داده‌ها با آزمون تحلیل ­واریانس چندمتغیری(MANOVA) و با استفاده از نرم­افزار20  SPSS-تجزیه و تحلیل گردید.یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد که شیرخواران دارای مشکلات تغذیه‌ای، ترسوتر(02/0P= و 8/5 F=) و غمگین­تر (02/0P= و 7/5 F=) از شیرخواران بدون مشکلات تغذیه­ای بودند. همچنین این گروه در برابر محدودیت­ها پریشانی بیشتری نشان می­دادند(02/0P= و 5/5 F= و  در کل از عواطف منفی بیشتری برخوردار بودند(007/0P= و 01/8 F=). در حالی­که شیرخواران بدون مشکلات تغذیه­ای نمره بیشتری در مولفه لذت سطح بالا کسب کردند (04/0P= و 1/4 F=).بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج مطالعه حاضر بیان­گر تفاوت خلق و خوی شیرخواران دارا و فاقد مشکلات تغذیه­ای بود. این نتایج می‌تواند در برنامه‌های پیشگیرانه و درمانی مشکلات تغذیه‌ای شیرخواران مورد توجه متخصصان قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Temperament of Infants with and without Feeding Problems

نویسندگان [English]

  • R Nasirzadeh
  • M A Mazaheri

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Considering the high prevalence and negative consequences of infant feeding problems, there is an urgent need to identify the causative factors. The present study aimed to compare temperament of infants with and without feeding problems according to their mothers’ reports.
Methods: This casual-comparative study was conducted on 50 mother-infant dyads selected using convenient sampling. The infants’ ages ranged from 6 to 12 months. After matching with respect to age, sex, birth order, and maternal age and education level, the infants were classified into two groups of with and without feeding problems according to their mothers’ reports. The data were collected using Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), which was completed by the mothers. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and were analyzed using MANOVA.
Results: The results showed that the infants with feeding problems had higher fear (F=5.7, P=0.02) and sadness (F=5.8, P=0.02) compared to those without feeding problems. The infants with feeding problems also demonstrated more distress to limitations (F=5.5, P=0.02) and negative affectivity (F=8.01, P=0.007). On the other hand, the infants without feeding problems gained higher scores in high intensity pleasure subscale (F=4. 1, P=0.04).
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a significant difference between the infants with and without feeding problems regarding their temperament. This could be considered by specialists in preventive and therapeutic programs for eating problems in infants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Feeding
  • Infant
  • Mother
  • Temperament

  1. Chatoor I. Feeding and eating disorders of infancy and early childhood In: Wiener JM, Dulcan MK, (editors). Textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.2004: 639-57.
  2. Navabakhsh M, Mosanna A. An introductory evaluation of nutritional changes in the present societies. Iranian Journal of Food Technology & Nutrition 2012; 9(1): 33-48. (Persian)
  3. Kelmanson I. Temperament and sleep characteristics in two-month-old infants.
    Sleep and Hypnosis 2004; 6: 78–84. Available from: URL: http://www.sleepandhypnosis.org
  4. Faith MS, Hittner JB. Infant temperament and eating style predict change in
    standardized weight status and obesity risk at 6 years of age. Int J Obes 2010; 34: 1515–1523.
  5. Rothbart, M K, Derryberry D. Development of individual differences in temperament. In: Lamb M E, Brown LA (editors). Advances in developmental psychology
    Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1981: 37–86.

 

  1. Rothbart MK, Bates JE. Temperament. In: Damon W, Lerner RM, Eisenberg N (editors). Handbook of child psychology Hoboken, NJ: John
    Wiley & Sons Inc; 2006: 99–166.
  2. Feldman R., Keren M, Gross-Rozval O, Tyano S. Mother–child touch patterns
    in infant feeding disorders: Relation to maternal, child, and environmental factors.
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 43: 1089–1097.
    Galler, J R, Harrison R H, Ramsey F, Butler S, Forde V. Postpartum maternal mood, feeding practices, and infant temperament in Barbados. Infant Behav Dev 2004; 27: 267–287.
  3. Wells J C K, Stanley M, Laidlaw A S, Day J M E, Stafford M, Davies P S. Investigation of the relationship between infant temperament and later body composition. Int J Obes1997; 21: 400–406.
  4. Thomas A, Chess S. Temperament and development. New York, NY: New York University Press; 1977.
  5. Vollrath ME, Tonstad S, Rothbart M K, Hampson S E. Infant temperament is associated with potentially obesogenic diet at 18 months. Int J Pediatr Obes 2011; 6: 408–414.
  6. Llewellyn, C H, Van Jaarsveld C H, Johnson L, Carnell S, Wardle J. Nature and nurture in infant appetite: Analysis of the Gemini twin birth cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1172–1179.
  7. Coulthard H, Blissett J, Harris G. The relationship between parental eating problems and children's feeding behavior: a selective review of the literature. Eat Behav 2004; 5(2): 103-15.
  8. McDermott BM, Mamun AA, Najman JM, Williams GM, O'Callaghan MJ, Bor W. Longitudinal correlates of the persistence of irregular eating from age 5 to 14 years. Acta Paediatr 2010; 99(1): 68-71.
  9. Nicklaus S, Boggio V, Chabanet C, Issanchou S. A prospective study of food variety seeking in childhood, adolescence and early adult life. Appetite 2005; 44(3): 289-297.
  10. Khatoon T, Mollah AH, Choudhury AM, Islam M, Rahman KM. Association between infant and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr 2011; 29(4): 349-356.
  11. Wright C, Parkinson K, Drewett RF. The influence of maternal socioeconomic and emotional factors on infant weight gain and weight faltering (failure to thrive): data from a prospective birth cohort. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91(4): 312-7.
  12. Micali N, Simonoff E, Treasure J. Infant feeding and weight in the first year of life in babies of women with eating disorders. J Pediatr 2009; 154(1): 55-60.
  13. Ong KK, Emmett PM, Noble S, Ness A, Dunger DB. Dietary energy intake at the age of 4 months predicts postnatal weight gain and childhood body mass index. Pediatrics 2006; 117(3): 503-508.
  14. Hagekull B, & Dahl M. Infants with and without feeding difficulties. Maternal experiences. Int J Eat Disord 1987; 6: 83–98.
  15. Skuse D, Pickles A, Wolke D, Reilly S. Postnatal growth and mental development: evidence for a "sensitive period". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1994; 35(3): 521-45.
  16. Rothbart M K, Gartstein M A. Studying infant temperament Via the revised infant behavior questionnaire. Infant Behav Dev 2003; 26(1): 64-86. P:24.
  17.  Robertson J, Gartstein M A, Crawford J, Robertson CD. Early markers of language and attention: Mutual contributions and the impact of parent-Infant interactions. Child Psych Humn Develop 2008; 39(1): 9-26.
  18. Gartstein MA, Potapova NV, Hsu AJ. Infant temperament: implications for later sleep and eating/feedingJ Reprod Infant Psychol 2014;32(2): 185-198,
  19. Hagekull B, Bohlin, G, Rydell A. M. Maternal sensitivity, infant temperament, and the development of early feeding problems. Infant Ment Health J 1997; 18, 92–106.
  20. West AE, Newman D L, Worried and blue: Mild parental anxiety and depression in relation to the development of young children’s temperament and behavior problems. Parent Sci Pract 2003;3(2):133–154.
  21. Klein M. The psychoanalytic play technique. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1995; 25(2): 223-237.