نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

چکیده

مقدمه: مهارت مقابله‌ای، توانایی شناخت و کنترل احساسات و ویژگی‌های خود و ریشه مدیریت هیجانی است. مهارت‌های مقابله‌ای در حکم مهارتی برای منبع چند وجهی کنترل سلامت در نظر گرفته می‌شود. تأثیر نقاشی نیز بر افزایش مهارت‌های مقابله‌ای در مطالعات متعدد مطرح شده است. هدف مطالعه حاضر بررسی تأثیر آموزش مهارت مقابله‌ای مدیریت شخصی توأم با نقاشی بر منبع چند وجهی کنترل سلامت نوجوانان بی‌سرپرست بود.مواد و روش: این مطالعه نیمه تجربی شاهددار تصادفی شده با نمونه 80 نفری از نوجوانان 12 تا 18 سال با گروه آزمون و کنترل انجام گرفت. این 80 نفر نوجوان بی‌سرپرست به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه کنترل و ازمون قرار گرفتند. گروه آزمون در معرض آموزش مهارت مقابله‌ای همراه با نقاشی قرار گرفتند. داده ها یک هفته و شش هفته بعد از مداخله با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه مهارت مقابله‌ای و منبع کنترل سلامت درونی، منبع کنترل مربوط به افراد مؤثر و منبع کنترل مربوط به شانس که آلفای کرونباخ همه پرسشنامه ها 85/0 بود جمع‌آوری شد و توسط نرم افزار SPSS19 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.یافته‌ها: عامل‌های مهارت مقابله‌ای (04/2±55/34)، زیر مقیاس‌های منبع کنترل سلامت شامل: منبع کنترل سلامت درونی(75/3±25/64) در گروه مداخله نسبت به گروه کنترل بعد از آموزش افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کردند ( 001/0>p) و بر عکس منبع کنترل سلامت مربوط به افراد مؤثر(  25/6±05/42) و منبع کنترل سلامت مربوط به شانس(17/8±66/39)، در گروه مداخله نسبت به گروه کنترل بعد از آموزش کاهش معنی‌داری پیدا کرد ( 001/0>p).بحث و نتیجه گیری: آموزش مهارت مقابله‌ای با نقاشی برای ارتقاء منبع کنترل درونی سلامت نوجوانان بی سرپرست مؤثر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Combined Training of Coping Skills and Painting on Multidimensional Health Locus of Control among Orphan Adolescent

نویسندگان [English]

  • L Ghahremani
  • F Hatami
  • M H Kaveh
  • S Keshavarzi

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Coping skill is defined as the ability to understand and control one’s emotions and characteristics and is the foundation of emotional management. Various studies have indicated the effect of painting on increasing coping skills.  Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of training coping skills together with painting on multidimensional health locus of control among orphan adolescents.
Methods: This semi-experimental randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 orphan adolescents within the age range of 12 to 18 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group received training about coping skills and painting. The data were collected using coping skills questionnaire, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC), Internal Health Locus of Control (IHLC), Powerful others Health Locus of Control (PHLC), and Chance Health Locus of Control (CHLC) scales with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85. Data collection was performed one and six weeks after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, version 19.  
Results: After the intervention, the scores of coping skills (34.55+2.04) and IHLC scale significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the scores of PHLC scale (42.05±6.25) and CHLC scale (39.66±8.17) significantly decreased in the intervention group in comparison to the control group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that training of coping skills along with painting was effective in promotion of the adolescents’ internal health locus of control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coping skill
  • Multidimensional health locus of control
  • Painting
  • Adolescent

1.         Moshki M. Using the preceed-proceed model in the combination with health locus of control for mental of university student. Dissertation presented for the PhD degree in health education. September 2007.   

2.         Zarabi R, Rahmatnejad L, Bastani F. Health locus of control in diabetes pregnant woman. Oromeye University of Medical Sciences Nursing and Midwifery Faculty Journal 2011; 10(1): 72-82. [Persian]

3.         Malcame V, Drahota A, Hamilton N. Children health related locus of control belief: Ethnicity, gender, and family income. Child Health Care 2005; 34(1): 47-59.

4.         Sperling MR. Schilling CA. Glosser D, Tracy J I, Asadi-Pooya AA. Self-perception of seizure precipitants and their relation to anxiety level, depression, and health locus of control in epilepsy. Seizure. 2008; 17(4): 302-307.

5.         Stabelton P, Hayley S. Health locus of control self-awareness and integrative eating styles in university students. International Journal of Healing and Caring 2013; 13(2): 1-24.

6.         Laffrey SC, Isenberg M. The relationship of internal locus of control, value placed on health, perceived importance of exercise, and participation in physical activity during leisure. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2003; (5): 409-453.

7.         Shaabanibahar G, Eyafani A, Gharghli S. The relationship between public health locus of control athletes and non-athletes.  Journal Athlete Management 2010; (7):43-59. [Persian]

8.         Davare A, Tafakori M, Kazemi F. Self_Awareness Skills. Behvarz Quarterly 2006; 17(3): 26-37. [Persian]

9.         Mohammadiarya A, Sarabi SD, Shirazi M, Lachinani F, Roustaei A, Abbasi Z, et al. The effect of training self-awareness and anger management on aggression aevel in Iranian middle school students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012; 46(1): 987-91.

10.       Zareaey F, KHakbaz H, Karami H. Communication skills training on self-efficacy in reducing risk behaviors with the opposite sex addict. Quarterly Journal of Research on Addiction 2010; 4(15): 63-9. [Persian]

11.       Hanem A, Ahmad A, Yoser M. Effect of self-awareness education on the self-efficacy and sociotropy–autonomy characteristics of nurses in a psychiatry clinic. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2011; 8(2): 148-56.

12.       Dombrowsky H. The effect of self-awareness on one’s emotional state. Vault Hanoveredu; 2012. http://vault.hanover.edu/~altermattw/courses/344/papers/2012/Dombrowsky.

13.       Abasi T, Fani AA. The relationship between self-awareness and understanding, interpersonal skills and knowledge of career management and environmental management ineducation. Quarterly Special Issue of Management 2006; 1(1): 101. [Persian]

14.       Tajrishi MP, Abkenar SJ, Ashoori M. The Effectiveness of life skills training on the social self-competency in boy students with dyscalculia. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2013; 5(2): 18.

15.       Kordnoghabi R, Pashasharefi H. Developing life skills curriculum for students in secondary education. Quarterly of Educational Innovation 2005; 4(12): 12-34. [Persian]

16.       Fathivajargah K, Arefi M, Esfandyari T. Developing life skills curriculum for adults. Quarterly of Teaching and Education 2014; 70-11. [Persian]

17.       Pakdamansavoji A, Gangi K, Ahmadzadeh M. The impact of life skills training on students' academic achievement motivation. Quarterly of Research- Sciences social welfare 2001; 17(47): 245-65. [Persian]

18.       Penelope PD. Art therapy with children after a disaster: A content analysis. The Art in Psychotherapy 2007; 34: 350-61.

19.       Karami J, Alikhani M, Zakiei A, Khodadadi K. The effectiveness of art therapy (painting) in reducing the aggressive behavior of students with dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities 2012; 1(3): 105-17. [Persian]

20.       Kathleen M. Outcome-based evaluation of a social skills program using art therapy and group therapy for children on the autism spectrum. Journal of Children & Schools 2008; 30(2):27-36.

21.       Franklin M. Art therapy and self-esteem. Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 1992; 9(2): 78-84.

22.       Nazemi Z, Hojatkhah M. Effectiveness painting on adolescent emotional intelligence. International Congress on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2013.

23.       Zadehmohamadi A, Malekkhosravi G, Sadralsadat J, Berashek B. Effect of active music therapy on reducing behavioral and emotional disorders of orphans children’s. Journal of psychologe. 2006; 10(2):223-31. [Persian]

24.       Hajamini Z, Ajalli A, fathiashtiani A, Dibaei M, Delkhosh M. The effect of life skills training on emotional reactions in adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2008; 2(3):263-70. [Persian]

25.       Mohamadi M, SHeghaghi F, Zarea H. The impact of life skills education on students' academic motivation knowledge and attitudes towards drug use and self-esteem. Peek Noor. 2008; 8(1):67-83. [Persian]

26.       Baghkheirati AJ, Ghahremani L, Keshavarzi S, Kaveh4 MH. The effect of optimism training through educational movies on the students’ social competence. Journal of Health Education & Promotion, School of Health 2014; 2(1):57-64. [Persian]

27.       Vanderzanden JW. Developmental psychologe in: Merhashemi M, editor. Developmental Psychologe Tehran: Beasat Publishers. 2004; 214-39.

28.        Khodadadi M, Soltaninad A, Fekri S. Life skills. Azmonyare Pooya; 2003: 1-13.

29.        Wallston. Multidimentional health locus of control scales. Translated by Ghorbani Z. Azmonyar Poya Organization. Azmonyar Poya Organization 2012; 1(1): 1-7.

30.       Saffari M, Shojaizaseh D, Ghofranipour F, Hidadnia A, Pakpor A. Health education & promotion theories, models & methods.Tehran; Sobhan. First Edition; 2009; Page: 22-111.

31.       Zahrakar K, Rezazadeh A, Ahghar G. Communication problem solving skills training on self-efficacy Rasht city adolescent girls. 2010; 5(3): 50-133. [Persian]

32.       Jalali D, Nazari A. Effects of social learning model training on self-esteem, self- confidence, self-assertiveness and academic achievement in third grade students of intermediary schools. Journal of Research in Behavioural Science 2009; 7(1): 43-53. [Persian]

33.       KHarazi A, Eajeai J, Tabatabai MG, Karshaki H. The relationship between development object, self-efficacy and ultra-cognition guideline; examination of causality pattern.  Journal of Psychology & Education. 2008; 38(3): 69-87. [Persian]

34.       Masoodneia E. General self-efficacy and social phobia: Evaluation of Bandura's social cognitive model. Psychological Studies Faculty of Education and Psychology،Al-Zahra University. 2009; 4(3): 116-27. [Persian]

35.       Bandora A. Negative self-efficacy and goal revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology 2003; 88(1): 78-89.

36.       Najafi M, Poladchang M. The relationship between self-efficacy and mental health in relation in for students in secondary education. Quarterly of Research- Sciences of Shahed University. 2009; 22(14): 22-82. [Persian]

38.       Bastani F, Heedarneia A, Vafayi M, Kazemnejad A, Kashaniyan M. The impact of tension detergent training on the stand of self-efficacy theory in pregnant woman. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and clinical Psychology 2006; 12(2):109-116. [Persian]

39.       Askari E. The relationship between self-awareness training on self-efficacy for 15-16 age students in Alame Helli Molard city. http://wwwkiauacir; 2012.

40.       Moradpoor J, Miri M, Aliabadi S, Poorsadegh A. Effectiveness of training self-awareness and assertiveness skills on self-esteem and compatibility of mothers of mentally retarded children. Modern Care, Scientific Quarterly of Birjand Nursing and Midwifery Faculty Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(1): 43-52. [Persian]

41.       Ghaffari M, Ahadi H. A consideration of emotional self-awareness and impulse control effect on decrease of social withdrawal and on decrease of social withdrawal and compulsion use of internet. Psychological Studies Faculty of Education and Psychology، Al-Zahra University.2007; 3(2):91 – 107, [persian].

42.       khadivi R, Moezi M, SHakeri M, Tagheborjeian M. The impact of life skills training in the field of suicide attempts prevention in women Ardal city. Eelam University of Medical Sciences Journal 2005; 13(1):13-9. [Persian]

43.       Taumoepeau M, Reese E. Understanding the self through siblings: self-awareness mediates the sibling effect on social understanding. Social Development 2014; 23(1): 1-18.

44.       Ross J, Anderson JR, Campbell RN. Situational changes in self-awareness influence 3- and 4-year-olds' self-regulation. J Exp Child Psychol 2011; 108(1): 126-38.

45.       Molnar LJ, Eby DW, Kartje PS, St Louis RM. Increasing self-awareness among older drivers: the role of self-screening. J Safety Res 2010; 41(4):367-73.

46.       Zadehmohamadi A, Abedi A, KHanjani M. Improving the self-esteem and self-efficacy among juveniles. Iranian Psychologists Quarterly 2008; 4(15): 45-52. [Persian]