نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، پژوهشکده طب ورزشی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف: بیماری‌های قلبی-عروقی اصلی ترین علت مرگ و میر در جهان، در طی دهۀ گذشته بوده‌است؛ بنابراین، هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر سه شیوه برنامه ورزشی بر برخی فاکتورهای خطرزای قلبی و عروقی در نوجوانان فوتبالیست بود.مواد و روش‌: در این پژوهش 48 فوتبالیست نوجوان ( 74/0± 46/13 سال) با حداقل سه سال سابقه ورزشی، به چهار گروه (12n=) تقسیم شدند. گروه یک: به‌طور متناوب یک جلسه تمرین استقامتی، یک جلسه تمرین قدرتی و یک جلسه تمرین سرعتی را در پانزده جلسه تمرینی، انجام دادند. گروه دو: پنج جلسه اول را تمرین استقامتی، پنج جلسه دوم را تمرین قدرتی و پنج جلسه آخر را تمرین سرعتی انجام دادند. گروه سه: در طی پانزده جلسه تمرین ورزشی، هر سه فاکتور استقامت، قدرت و سرعت را در یک جلسه تمرین می‌کردند. گروه چهار: (گروه کنترل) تنها تمرینات روزمره فوتبال را انجام می‌دادند. پیش و پس از پروتکل تمرینی متغیرهایی همانند وزن، درصد چربی بدن، نمایه‌ی توده‌ی بدنی، کلسترول تام (TC)، تری‌گلیسرید (TG)، لیپوپروتئین‌های‌پرچگال (HDL) و لیپوپروتئین‌های‌کم‌چگال (LDL) از آزمودنی‌ها اندازه‌گیری شدند. داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 18 و توسط آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (t  همبسته و ANOVA)، با سطح معنی‌ داری (05/0P<) مورد آنالیز قرار گرفتند. یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد، مقادیر کلسترول تام، تری‌گلیسیرید و HDL، در گروه تجربی سه به‌طور معنی‌داری (002/0=P)، (001/0=P) و (011/0=P) نسبت به پیش‌آزمون کاهش یافت. سطوح کلسترول و LDL نیز در گروه یک به طور قابل توجهی (001/0=P) کاهش داشت. تری‌گلیسیرید در گروه تجربی دو نیز کاهش معناداری (04/0=P) داشت.بحث و نتیجه گیری: بسیاری از بیماری‌های خطرناک بزرگسالی ریشه در دوران نوجوانی دارند و با توجه به یافته‌های این پژوهش می‌توان نتیجه‌گرفت، هر سه نوع تمرینات ورزشی باعث کاهش برخی از فاکتورهای خطرزای قلبی و عروقی در نوجوانان فوتبالیست می‌گردند؛ بااین‌حال، هریک از این تمرینات منافع خاص خود را دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Three Selected Exercise Training Programs on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Soccer Players

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Samavati Sharif 1
  • Assadolah Chezani Sharahi 2
  • Hojjatolah Siavoshy 3

1 Associate Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Sport Sciences, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran

2 MSc in Exercise Physiology, Faculty Sport Sciences, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran

3 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Sports Medicine Research Center, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background: Ischemic heart diseases have been the world’s leading causes of death during the past decade. Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of three selected exercise training programs on some cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent soccer players.
Methods: A total of 48 adolescent soccer players were enrolled in this study (age 13.46±0.74 years) and were divided into four groups (n=12). Group A alternatively performed an endurance training, strength training and sprint in 15 training sessions. Group B underwent endurance training for the first 5 sessions, strength training for the next five consecutive sessions and sprint training for the last five sessions. Group C was given all three factors of endurance, strength, and speed during the fifteen sessions of exercise within one session. Group D (control group) continued with their daily football routines. Demographic variables such as weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) levels and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) were measured in these adolescents. Data were entered into SPSS 18 statistical software and were analyzed by descriptive statistics and ANOVA test.
 Results: In the post-test, the levels of TC, TG and HDL changed significantly in Group C in comparison with the pre-test (P<0.05). LDL, and TG levels changed significantly in Group A (P<0.05), and TG level increased significantly in Group B (P<0.05). Other variables didn’t change significantly in any group.
Conclusion: Many serious diseases in adulthood have their origins in adolescence and the result of the present study indicated that three type exercise training programs resulted in enhancing some of the metabolic factors related to cardiovascular risk in the adolescent football players; however, it is worth mentioning that each type of training can have unique benefits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lipoprotein
  • Cholesterol (CT)
  • Triglyceride (TG)
  • Aerobic Exercise
  • Resistance training

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