Document Type : Review Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Philosophy of Health and Member of Research Center of Quran, Hadith and Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy of Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Philosophy of Health, Shiraz University of Medical sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy of education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

5 Professor, Department of Philosophy, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

10.30476/smsj.2021.87437.1150

Abstract

Introduction: Any area of human knowledge is based on special philosophical foundations. These foundations determine the basic framework and paradigm of the area. Ontology, epistemology, methodology, and anthropology are the philosophical foundations that form a specific knowledge area. Ethics in medical sciences has its own philosophical foundations in Islamic framework. Using Islamic texts in general and the holy Quran in particular, this research/study attempts to analyze and identify these foundations, and, in an attempt to execute a part of the objectives of the Comprehensive and Scientific Map of Iran, it tries to localize and Islamicize these foundations.  
Methods: This is a qualitative research that is based on emergent design. The data collection procedure is documentary and library resource and the data analysis approach is considered to be descriptive-interpretive. Islamic texts and the holy Quran in particular are sources of extraction of our intended components and criteria.
Results: According to the foundations of Ontology, Epistemology, Methodology, and Islamic Anthropology, the most important characteristics of ethics in medical sciences include monotheism, motivations for closeness to God, kindness, and virtue. Other practical concepts such as thralldomand purification of soul are also taken into account in this study.
Conclusion: Using the capacity of Islamic moral education system, doctors and other healthcare providers could achieve Islamic and humanity goals in medical sciences. The medical education system of universities of medical sciences can use philosophical principles of Islamic ethical system in their curriculum programs and internships as a basis to improve students’ attitude, motivation and skills based on Islamic foundations.

Keywords

1.   Larijani B. Physician and Ethical Considerations. Tehran: Baray Farda; 2004: 116. (in Persian)
2.   Seraji M. A Comparative Critical Study on Four Principles of Medical Ethics from the Point of view of Islam and Secularism[Doctoral dissertation, University of Tehran]; 2012. (in Persian)
3.   Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution.  Comprehensive Scientific Map of the Iran; 2010. (in Persian)
4.   Majlesi M.B; Behar-al-Anvar;Tehran:Dar-al-Kotob;1997. (in Arabic)
5.   Maarefi Gh.R. Study of Medical Ethics Foundations in Shia Thoughts Using Quran and Hadiths in Nahj-al-Balagha. Daneshvar Medicine: Basic and Clinical Research Journal; 2009; 83. (in Persian)
6.   Holly Quran;Ainne Dasesh; 2014. (in Arabic)
7.   Dashti M. Nahj-al-Balaghe; Amir-al-Momenin Institute of cultural Research.
8.   Noor Mohammadi Gh.R. Islamic texts; Supreme Leader Office in University; 1999. (in Persian)
9.   Tabatabaie M.H. Tafsir-al-Mizan; Islamic Publications; 1988. (in Persian)
10. Deilami A, Azarbayjani M; Islamic Ethics; Maaref; 2017. (in Persian)
11. Gharamaleki A.F; Professional Ethics; Majnoon; 2017. (in Persian)
12. Brenda Almond, 'Applied Ethics', in Mautner, Thomas, Dictionary of Philosophy, Penguin 1996 .
13. Elahi Mansoor، Medical Ethics-A Practical guide to patient care related ethics, conventions and laws,Written from both Western and practical Asian cum Muslim viewpoint.MTRO Publishing,Pakistan,2011.
14. Richardson,Henry S.(1990)Specifying Norms as a Way to Resolve Concrete Ethical Problems." Philosophy and Public Affairs19(Fall):279-310.
15. American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA.
16. Brady, JV; Jonsen AR (1982). "The Evolution of Regulatory Influences on Research with Human Subjects". In Greenwald RA et al.. Human Subjects Research: A Handbook for Institutional Review Boards. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 4.
17. Jonsen, Albert R. (2000) A Short History of Medical Ethics Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195134559. Reviewed in the New England Journal of Medicine May 11, 2000 ("... a scholarly prologue to the evolving world of contemporary bioethics.")
18. Walter, Jennifer and Eran P. Klein eds. (2003) The Story of Bioethics: From seminal works to contemporary explorations Georgetown University Press.
19. Khaghani Zadeh M,Abbasi M and etal;  Study of Medical Ethics with Islamic Approach; Journal of Medical Ethics; 2009;  3(10). (in Persian)
20. Ebrahimi S, Tabei S.Z, Mahmoodian H, Asemani O; Medical Ethics; Shiraz University of Medical Science; 2017. (in Persian)
21. Mesbah M; Philosophy of Ethics; Imam Khomeini Institute; 2007. (in Persian)
22. Aghayani A. Medical Ethics Principles in Islamic Civilization and Rethinking them using Quran and   Hadiths  [Master dissertation, University of Islamic thoughts]; 2014. (in Persian)
23. Albahrani H.B.SH, Tohaf-al-Oghool; Islamic Publication;1975. (in Arabic)
24. Mesbah M.T. Ethics in Quran; Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research; 2001. (in Persian)