Document Type : Original Article
Assistant Professor, Department of English, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Lecturer, Department of English, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Introduction: Procrastination focuses on a voluntary postponement of a task despite the awareness of its detrimental effects. Different variables impact the academic procrastination of the students in learning a language. Awareness of the effective factors can speed up the learning process and decrease procrastination This study investigated the impact of motivation, language learning strategies, personality traits, and some demographic variables including gender, the field of study, English course, instructor, and education level on students' procrastination.
Methods: This study is a quantitative-survey type and data collected through administering questionnaires from all available 238 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences studying at least one English course in the second semester, 2016. The researchers administered a demographic questionnaire, Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, Language Learning Strategies Questionnaire, and Eysenck Personality Inventory to collect data. The collected data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Results: weak correlation was found between procrastination and compensation strategy and instrumental motivation; however, procrastination significantly correlated only with instrumental motivation although the effect of instrumental motivation on procrastination was not considerable. Furthermore, the students were found to be medium strategy users and high procrastinators.
Conclusion: Since the variables in the study were not found to influence students’ procrastination effectively, more research is required to explore other variables which may affect students’ high level of procrastination. Moreover, as the learning strategies are very effective in promoting learning, the instructors and curriculum designers are recommended to include these strategies in teaching materials and encourage the students to use them more frequently.
- Steel P. The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin. 2007; 133(1): 65-94.
- Hess B, Sherman MF, Goodman M. Eveningness predicts academic procrastination: The mediating role of neuroticism. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality. 2000; 15(5): 61-74.
- Day V, Mensink D, O’Sullivan M. Patterns of academic procrastination. Journal of College Reading and Learning. 2000; 30 (2):120-134.
- Goda Y, Yamada M, Kato H, Matsuda T, Saito Y, Miyagawa H. Procrastination and other learning behavioral types in e-learning and their relationship with learning outcomes. Learning and individual differences. 2015; 37: 72-80.
- Ozer BU, Demir A, Ferrari JR. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: Possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons. Journal of Social Psychology. 2009; 149: 241–257. doi:10.3200/ SOCP.149.2.241-257.
- Van Eerde W. Procrastination in academic settings and the Big Five model of personality: a meta-analysis. In: H.C. Schouwenburg HC, Lay CH, Pychyl TA & Ferrari JR, editors. Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2004. P: 29–40.
- Ferrari J, O’Callghan J, Newbegin I. Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: arousal and avoidance delays among adults. North American Journal of Psychology. 2005; 7(1): 1-6.
- Klassen RM, Krawchuk LL, Rajaru S. Academic procrastination of undergraduate’s low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2008; 33: 915-931.
- Kagan M. Determining the Variables, Which Explain the Behavior of Academic Procrastination in University Students. Journal of Faculty of Educational Science. 2009; 42(2): 113-128.
- Kong B. Academic procrastination and tolerance of ambiguity among undergraduate and graduate students. Chicago School of Professional Psychology; 2010.
- Firouzeh S, Jalil JF. The effects of coping styles and gender on academic procrastination among university students. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research.2011; 1(12): 2987 -2993.
- Motie H, Heidari M, Sadeghi AS. Predicting academic procrastination during self-regulated learning in Iranian first grade high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012; 69: 2299-2308.
- Savithri JJ. Interactive effect of academic procrastination and academic performance on life satisfaction. International Journal of Science and Research. 2014; 3(3): 377-381.
- Kandemir M. Reasons of academic procrastination: self- regulation, academic self-efficacy, life satisfaction and demographics variables. Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014; 152: 188-193.
- Deci EL. Ryan R M. The “what” and the “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self–determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry. 2000; 11: 227–268.
- DiPerna J, Elliot S, Development and validation of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 1999; 17: 207-225.
- Lee E. The relationship of motivation and flow experience to academic procrastination in university students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 2005; 166: 5-14.
- Balkis M. The relationships between student teachers’ procrastination behaviors and thinking styles and decision making styles. Dokuz Eylul Institute of Education Sciences; 2006.
- Díaz-Morales JF, Cohen JR, Ferrari JR. An integrated view of personality styles related to avoidant procrastination. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 2008; 45(6): 554-558.
- Rakes GC, Dunn KE. The Impact of Online Graduate Students’ Motivation and Self- Regulation on Academic Procrastination. Journal of Interactive online Learning.2010; 9: 78-93.
- Brownlow S, Reasinger RD. Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 2000; 15: 15-34.
- Sirin EF. Academic procrastination among undergraduates attending school of physical education and sports: Role of general procrastination, academic motivation. Educational Research and Reviews. 2011; 6: 447–455.
- Howell AJ, Watson, DC. Procrastination Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 43: 167-178.
- Wolters CA. Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2003; 95: 179–187, doi:10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
- Wolters CA. Advancing achievement goal theory: using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2004; 96: 236–250.
- Oxford RL. Language learning strategies. What every teacher should know. New York: New Boston. Heinle & Heinle; 1990.
- Gardner RC. Social psychological aspects of language learning: The role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold; 1985.
- Solomon LJ, Rothblum ED. Academic procrastination frequency and
cognitive-behavioral conflates. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 1984; 31: 503-509.
- Hoppe C S. Academic Procrastination as a Predictor of Explanatory Style in College Students. Carroll College; 2011.
- Tice DM Baumeister RF. Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Sciences. 1997; 8(6): 454-458.
- Alexander ES, Onwuegbuzie AJ. Academic procrastination and the role of hope as a compensation strategy. Personality and Individual Differences. 2007; 42: 1301-1310.
- Rebetez MML, Rochat L, Lindenm MVD. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors related to procrastination: A cluster analytic approach. Personality and Individual Differences. 2015; 76: 1–6
- Steel P, Konig CJ. Integrating theories of motivation. Academy of Management Review. 2006; 31(4): 889–913. doi:10.5465/amr.2006.22527462
- Morling B, Kitayama S. Handbook of motivation science. New York: Guilford Press New York; 2008.
- Komarraju M, Karau SJ, Ramayah T. Cross-cultural differences in the academic motivation of university students in Malaysia and the United States. North American Journal of Psychology. 2007; 9: 275-292.