Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 B.Sc., School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 M.Sc. Student, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 M.Sc., Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Introduction: Recent studies have suggested that fast food consumption is correlated to different aspects of cognitive functioning. This study aimed at investigating the association between fast-food consumption and short-term memory in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 182 undergraduate students were selected using a simple random sampling method from affiliated dormitories of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Demographic and anthropometric data and the frequency of fast food, salad, soft drink, and doogh consumption were obtained from each person. Then, Wechsler standard memory test was carried out to evaluate short-term memory.
Results: According to the results, respectively 1.3%, 18.4%, 25.3%, and 55.1% of the students consumed fast food less than once, 1-2 times, 3-4 times, 5 times, and more per week. Although fast-food consumption was higher in girls and seniors compared to boys and freshmen students, the difference was not statistically significant. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between fast food and salad consumption with short-term memory (P = 0.556 and P = 0.051, respectively); however, higher consumption of fast food and salad was accompanied by lower memory score. Besides, short-term memory was positively correlated with soft drinks (P <0.001) and inversely with doogh, (P <0.001).
Conclusion: fast food consumption is high in dormitory residents and its consumption is related to the lower score of short term memory.


  1. Alsabieh M, Alqahtani M, Altamimi A, Albasha A, Alsulaiman A, Alkhamshi A, et al. Fast food consumption and its associations with heart rate, blood pressure, cognitive function and quality of life. Pilot study. Heliyon. 2019;5(5):e01566.
  2. Sanaye S, Azargashb E, Derisi MM, Zamani A, Keyvanfar A. Assessing knowledge and attitudes toward fast foods among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 1394. 2016.
  3. Fazelpour S, Baghianimoghadam M, Nagharzadeh A, Fallahzadeh H, Shamsi F, Khabiri F. Assessment of fast food concumption among people of Yazd city. 2011.
  4. Dadipoor S, Madani A, Ghanbarnejad A, Safari Moradabadi A, Amani F, Hosseini M, et al. Effective Factors related to Fast-foods Consumption in Bandar Abbas: A Community-Based Study. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion. 2014;2(2):77-86.
  5. Purtell KM, Gershoff ET. Fast Food Consumption and Academic Growth in Late Childhood. Clinical pediatrics. 2015;54(9):871-7.
  6. Powell LM, Han E, Chaloupka FJ. Economic contextual factors, food consumption, and obesity among U.S. adolescents. The Journal of nutrition. 2010;140(6):1175-80.
  7. Mohammadbeigi A, Asgarian A, Moshir E, Heidari H, Afrashteh S, Khazaei S, et al. Fast food consumption and overweight/obesity prevalence in students and its association with general and abdominal obesity. Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene. 2018;59(3):E236.
  8. Bakhtiyari M, Ehrampoush E, Enayati N, Rastmanesh R, Delpisheh A, Zayeri F, et al. Correlation between fast food consumption and levels of anxiety in students of medical science universities in Tehran. 2011.
  9. Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A. Macro and micro-nutrients intake, food groups consumption and dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012;14(4):204.
  10. Asadi A, Sohanaki Azad M, Ghavam Sadri M, Tabibi H. Evaluation of fat, cholesterol, fiber and high fat foods intake among nutrition students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in spring 2004. 9th Iranian Nutrition Congress,  4 - 7 September 2006; Tabriz - Iran: Tabtiz university of medical sciences; 2006 [in persian].
  11. Blades M, Kobayashi F. Academic achievement, BMI, and fast food intake of American and Japanese college students. Nutrition & Food Science. 2009.
  12. Fortune NC, Harville EW, Guralnik JM, Gustat J, Chen W, Qi L, et al. Dietary intake and cognitive function: evidence from the Bogalusa Heart Study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019;109(6):1656-63.
  13. Gowey MA, Reiter-Purtill J, Becnel J, Peugh J, Mitchell JE, Zeller MH. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Appetite. 2016;99:211-8.
  14. Chong CP, Shahar S, Haron H, Din NC. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive impairment among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults. Clinical interventions in aging. 2019;14:1331-42.
  15. Kim JY, Kang SW. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents. Journal of lifestyle medicine. 2017;7(1):10-7.
  16. Mohd Nasir MT, Norimah AK, Hazizi AS, Nurliyana AR, Loh SH, Suraya I. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia. Appetite. 2012;58(2):525-30.
  17. Pearson KE, Wadley VG, McClure LA, Shikany JM, Unverzagt FW, Judd SE. Dietary patterns are associated with cognitive function in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Journal of nutritional science. 2016;5:e38.
  18. Chan R, Chan D, Woo J. A cross sectional study to examine the association between dietary patterns and cognitive impairment in older Chinese people in Hong Kong. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2013;17(9):757-65.
  19. Solhi M, Shirzad M. Situation of fruits and vegetables consumption in the dormitory female students based on the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Health Literacy. 2016;1(2):129-36.
  20. Nader F, Ahmadi A, Faghih F, Zare L, Rashidian H, Ahmadi M. Investigation of the association between socioeconomic indicators and dormitory resident students’nutrition status in shiraz university of medical science. 2009.
  21. Wang M, Norman JE, Srinivasan VJ, Rutledge JC. Metabolic, inflammatory, and microvascular determinants of white matter disease and cognitive decline. American journal of neurodegenerative disease. 2016;5(5):171-7.
  22. Greenwood CE, Winocur G. High-fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function. Neurobiology of aging. 2005;26(1):42-5.
  23. Loef M, Walach H. Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2012;16(7):626-30.
  24. Mottaghi T, Amirabdollahian F, Haghighatdoost F. Fruit and vegetable intake and cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;72.
  25. Philippou E, Constantinou M. The influence of glycemic index on cognitive functioning: a systematic review of the evidence. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(2):119-30.
  26. Kanoski SE, Davidson TL. Western diet consumption and cognitive impairment: links to hippocampal dysfunction and obesity. Physiology & behavior. 2011;103(1):59-68.
  27. Micha R, Rogers PJ, Nelson M. The glycaemic potency of breakfast and cognitive function in school children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(9):948-57.
  28. Quas JA, Yim IS, Edelstein RS, Cahill L, Rush EB. The role of cortisol reactivity in children's and adults' memory of a prior stressful experience. Developmental psychobiology. 2011;53(2):166-74.
  29. Adimi Naghan P, Setareh J, Khoundabi B, Panahi A, Rajabi K. The Effect of Doogh (Yogurt Drink) on Reaction Time and Vigilance-Sleepiness of Healthy Young Adults. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2018;12(1):e56000.
  30. Alhola P, Polo-Kantola P. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2007.