نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار آمار حیاتی، عضو مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران

2 دکترای بهداشت حرفه‌ای، عضو مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، زاهدان، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد مهندسی بهداشت حرفه‌ای، عضو مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، ایران

4 کارشناس بهداشت حرفه‌ای دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: کارآموزان به‌عنوان شاغلین آینده در کارگاه‌های فنی حرفه‌ای با مجموعه‌ای از ماشین‌آلات و فعالیت‌های پرخطر مواجهه داشته و ماهیت بسیاری از خطرات برای آن‌ها ناشناخته است. این مطالعه باهدف شناسایی خطرات مرتبط با سلامت دریکی از آموزشگاه‌های فنی حرفه‌ای به روش آنالیز ایمنی شغلی انجام شد.مواد و روش: این مطالعه مقطعی دریکی از آموزشگاه‌های فنی حرفه‌ای زاهدان در سال 1390 انجام گرفت بدین ترتیب که، 9 کارگاه آموزشی درودگری، تراشکاری، تعمیرات دیزل، تعمیرات ماشین‌های سبک، جوشکاری درب و پنجره، جوشکاری لوله، تأسیسات، فرزکاری و صافکاری بر اساس تکرار و اهمیت فعالیت‌ها موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. 53 فعالیت شغلی موجود به210 مرحله مشخص تقسیم گردیده و با استفاده از چک‌لیست، مشاهده، مصاحبه و سوابق موجود، خطرات مرتبط با سلامت هر مرحله شناسایی‌شده و سطح ریسک آن‌ها با استفاده از ماتریس ریسک MIL-SID882E تعیین گردید. درنهایت اقدامات کنترلی پیشنهادی برای آن‌ها در برگه کار مخصوص این روش، ارائه گردید و از نرم‌افزار اکسل 2013 برای توصیف داده‌ها استفاده گردید.یافته‌ها: پس از تجزیه‌وتحلیل خطرات به روش آنالیز ایمنی شغلی، 524 خطر شناسایی گردید که در این میان هیچ خطری در سطح غیرقابل‌قبول شناسایی نشد، 65خطر در سطح نامطلوب، 257 خطر در سطح قابل‌قبول ولی نیازمند تجدیدنظر و 202خطر قابل‌قبول بودند. درودگری، تراشکاری و تأسیسات به ترتیب با81، 75 و72 خطر در رأس پرخطرترین فعالیت‌های شغلی شناسایی گردیدند.بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به اینکه کارگاه‌های پرخطر ازجمله درودگری، تراشکاری و تأسیسات در اکثر محیط‌های شغلی وجود داشته و حوادث زیادی را به بار می‌آورند، آموزش حین انجام کار و اقداماتی از قبیل تهیه دستورالعمل، برگزاری کارگاه‌ها و انجام اصلاحات در جهت انجام کار به طریق ایمن بسیار ضروری و مفید هست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Health Hazards Identification in Institute of Occupation and Technique by Job Safety Analysis in Zahedan

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Mohammadi 1
  • R Hashemi Habybabady 2
  • B Fazli 3
  • E Moradian 4
  • A Khamari 3

1 PhD, Associate Professor of Biostatistics, Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2 PhD, Occupational Health and Safety, Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

3 Master of Science, Occupational Health and Safety, Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

4 Bachelor of Occupational Health and Safety, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Background and objectives: In institutions of technical and vocational training, trainees are asked to operate machinery and engage in high-risk manual activities that may expose them to a wide array of potential risks and safety hazards that are unknown to them. Therefore, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) was used in this study to identify potential hazards in one technical and vocational training institution in Zahedan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in one of the technical and vocational training institutions in Zahedan in 2011. In this study, 9 technical or vocational workshop activities including carpentry, metal turnery, installation, milling, smooth, welding of building windows, pipe welding, diesel maintenance, and light vehicle maintenance were assessed based on their importance and frequency. All 53 craft vocations were divided to 210 specific sequence steps and hazards of each step were determined using check list, available documents, observations and interviews. For the purpose of risk identification, MIL-STD-882 E matrix table was used. In the final stage, corrective and controlling measures for all hazards were proposed in the special sheet. Excel 2013 software was used for data analysis and interpretation.
Results: 524 hazards were determined by JSA. Although it is always difficult to report with certainty that there is no risk, the overall results of this study indicated that there was no risk involved at an unacceptable level. In general, hazards were found in the following: 65 hazard risks level were found to be serious, 257 hazards risk level were found to be acceptable but needed to be revised and 202 hazard risk level were found to be low. Carpentry, metal turnery and installation with 81, 75, 72 hazards, respectively, were the most hazardous technical working activities.
Conclusion: Considering the fact that carpentry, metal turnery and installation exist in almost any occupational environment, it is crucial to provide advice on preventive and protective measures (i.e. health and safety guidelines and detailed Codes of Practice), and to insist upon on-the-job training for trainees to reduce the level of risk arising from activities performed in the training centers and workplaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Risk Assessment
  • Accident
  • On the Job Training

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